After a car accident your ‘to do list’ may be long – get your car fixed, find an attorney, file a claim with your insurance agent, find a rental car to get to and from work, etc. For most, the damages to your body are less of a concern in the initial stages following an accident. Unfortunately, many do not know where and how to find treatment for their injuries. Without the guidance of someone who understands the system, it’s possible to get taken advantage of as there are extensive legal businesses built around profiting from MVAs. In this post I’ll describe some of the most common injuries sustained during MVAs, as well as give you insight into the medico-legal process and how to make sure you get the care you deserve. 

Opt into MedPay

In Colorado it is state law every insurance company provides their drivers with a minimum $5,000 Medical Payments Coverage (MedPay) policy in addition to their automobile liability policy¹. MedPay should be included on any insurance policy by default and is against state law for an insurance company to deny a customer MedPay.  The $5,000 policy provides coverage for the driver, as well as the passengers in the insured driver’s car, regardless of which party is at fault. MedPay even covers you when you’re in a car that isn’t your own. Unlike other medical insurance, MedPay never carries a deductible or co-pay in the policy and is available immediately following the accident².  Colorado MedPay covers payments related to bodily injury, sickness, or disease resulting from the ownership, maintenance, or use of the motor vehicle.  Colorado MedPay can be used to cover accident related expenses such as emergency or trauma care, ambulance rides, emergency room care, imaging services (X-rays, CT scans, or MRI’s), and conservative care treatments from chiropractors, massage therapists, and physical therapists. 

Despite being mandated by Colorado state law, some insurance companies find ways to avoid providing their customers with the required $5,000 MedPay coverage. I’ve had numerous patients tell me they unknowingly opted out of their MedPay coverage before being told what the payment meant or included. Insurance companies in Colorado are required to include MedPay by default into any new policy, however, if you’ve opted out in the past, the insurance company is not required to remind you of MedPay or to ask if you want to opt in. If you use MedPay for an accident where you were not at fault your insurance company cannot raise your premium following the accident. I highly recommend calling your insurance agent today and making sure you have not opted out of MedPay. MedPay should be of little or no extra cost to your policy, and will provide you with much needed, immediately available funds following an accident.  

Common injury patterns with MVAs

The injuries sustained in even minor MVAs can be severe. Many patients I’ve treated for a MVA report little to no pain the day of the accident, with symptoms hitting them hard the following morning. The shock involved with being in an accident is one explanation for the latency of symptoms, and oftentimes the brain is focused less on pain in the body and more on the financial and legal implications of the accident. Pain typically starts in the spine, with symptoms radiating down the extremities as the full effects of the injury are realized. I recommend waiting 2-3 days following a MVA to receive treatment. Waiting will ensure the treating physician gets the full picture of your injuries and can determine the appropriate treatment approach.  

The most common type of injury sustained during a MVA is a whiplash type injury.  Whiplash involves a sudden acceleration – deceleration force on the spine and muscles.  Cervical acceleration – deceleration injuries are very common in MVAs and the whiplash injury causes tearing of muscle and ligament fibers. The muscles damaged in a cervical acceleration – deceleration injury are typically the cervical deep neck flexors which include the longus colli, longus capitis, and also the sternocleidomastoid. These muscles are extremely important for normal biomechanical function of the cervical spine. Weakness and inhibition of these muscles due to injury can lead to instability in the cervical spine and poor healing outcomes. Exercises targeting the function of these muscles are critical following a MVA and the guidance of a trained therapist is recommended to determine which exercises will be most beneficial.  

Concussion

Concussions are another possibility after a MVA and are most often associated with a blunt force trauma to the head against the steering wheel, dash, side window, or even an airbag.  If the patient lost consciousness due to head trauma and post concussive symptoms are severe, a CT is recommended to rule out a more serious pathology such as an internal hemorrhage inside the brain. Any concussion, no matter how severe, deserves attention. Less severe cases warrant a neurologic examination by a trained therapist to assess for damage to the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves. Some of the assessments used include a cranial nerve examination, ocular examination, and a high index neurologic exam that includes skin sensation, muscle testing, and deep tendon reflexes. The patient should also be taken through a verbal Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT 5) which helps determine severity of concussion and also to track treatment progress. Treatment of concussions often requires a nutritional component and an anti-inflammatory diet free of refined sugar and highly processed vegetable oils. High dose EPA/DHA from fish oil and vitamin D is also recommended to help heal brain tissue. Finally, our clinic uses a class 2 therapeutic infrared laser that can safely penetrate the skull and help to heal brain tissue via mitochondrial upregulation.  

How long will it take to get better?

Tissue healing times are different for every patient and depend on age, injury history, genetics, nutrition, and lifestyle status. The severity of the accident and associated discrepancies in physical forces placed on the body are also a factor. As a general rule, the below gives the healing times for different tissue in the body which may be injured in a MVA³: 

Muscle Strain (Grade 1): 0-2 wk

Muscle Strain (Grade 2): 4d-3mo

Muscle Strain (Grade 3): 3wk-6mo

Ligament Sprain (Grade 1): 0-3d

Ligament Sprain (Grade 2): 3wk-6mo

Ligament Sprain (Grade 3): 5wk-1yr

Bone: 5wk-3mo

Many insurance companies try to fit every client into the same recovery timeline which is not realistic. If you are still in pain and someone handling your case says you need to be finished with care, advocate for yourself and demand the care you need. 

At our clinic we use passive therapies such as acupuncture/dry needling, active release technique, therapeutic laser, cupping, and instrument assisted soft tissue manipulation among others to help you heal faster. We also use a wide variety of physical rehabilitation exercises to treat the specific deficits caused by the MVA. The focus of care after a MVA is to build strength, stability, and resilience in the cervical and lumbar spine and other body regions affected by the accident. Our goal is to make the patient stronger and more functional than they were before the accident.  

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC.  Check out his bio here

Sources and References

  1. Colorado Revised Statutes Title 10. Insurance § 10-4-636. Disclosure requirements for automobile insurance products offered–rules.
  2. Med Pay Insurance in Colorado.
  3. Potential Applications of Hyaluronans in Orthopaedics.

The recent snowstorms in Denver are a reminder ski season is right around the corner. Skiing is an incredibly demanding sport requiring high levels of fitness and athleticism. As with any athletic endeavor, it is important to prepare your body for the forces and demands of the sport. A skier must have strong legs and hips so they can turn sharply on their edges, brace for impacts, and hike at high altitudes to reach the best terrain. Off season preparation drastically decreases your risk of injury and subsequent time away from the mountain, and is an integral part of every successful athlete’s program. I will provide 5 simple exercises you can do from home which will prepare your body to hit the slopes come winter.

The SAID Principle 

Well accepted in the strength and conditioning world, the SAID Principle (Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands) states training should be specific to the type of sport the athlete is preparing for. The intensity, volume, and duration of training should be tailored to the specific sport. Skiing requires a diverse mix of strength, balance, and endurance that is unparalleled in other sports. The athlete must be strong enough to dig their edges into the snow at high speeds, have the endurance to hike at altitudes above 10,000 feet, and have the balance and stability to correct body position when uneven surfaces are encountered or landing from a jump. The skier must build strong quads, hamstrings, and glutes to effectively and safely navigate the mountain. The program I outline below addresses each of these muscle groups with functional exercises specific to skiing.

Off-Season Ski Workout – perform the following sequence of exercises for 3 rounds.

Body Weight Reverse Lunge – 3 sets x 20 reps (10 each leg)  

Body Weight Squat – 3 sets x 10 reps

For the body weight squat start in the standing position. Sit back as if you are sitting into a chair. Keep knees pressing slightly outwards as you descend to activate the lateral glutes. Reach arms out in front for a counter balance. Go down as far as you can while maintaining a straight spine. Do your best to keep your eyes looking forward. Muscles activated should include the glutes and quads.

Rear Foot Elevated Split Squat – 3 sets x 10 reps

Wall-Sit – 3 sets x 45 second hold

For the wall sit, make sure to keep your low back pressed against the wall. Doing so will force you to use primarily your quads to hold you up. The wall-sit exercise recreates the prolonged periods of partial squatting used in skiing and helps improve the athlete’s isometric muscle strength and endurance.

DNS 7 Month Side Lying Hip Get Up – 3 sets x 10 reps 

I recommend performing this exercise routine 3-4 times per week. You can increase the number of rounds as you gain strength and endurance and as ski season gets closer.

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC. Check out his bio here.

You’ve heard the stories, watched the YouTube videos, and maybe even experienced it yourself.  The ‘pop’ or ‘crack’ made during a chiropractic adjustment is a mystery to most people. Are the bones cracking? The joints popping? The ligaments snapping? Where is the noise actually coming from? When a chiropractor delivers a high velocity, low amplitude thrust (HVLA) to a specific joint, there is often an audible sound associated with the adjustment.  What is really causing this noise? Read on to find out more! 

Cavitation 

To understand where the noise in a chiropractic adjustment comes from, it’s important to first define the engineering phenomenon called ‘cavitation.’ Cavitation refers to air pockets or bubbles formed in response to a rapid change in the pressure of a liquid. Cavitation is often seen with underwater propellers, where bubbles are formed in response to the rapid change in water pressure caused by the spinning propeller. As pressure increases, these bubbles can burst, releasing a shockwave of energy. The field of engineering views the cavitation as a negative phenomenon to be avoided, because the energy released by the bursting bubbles can damage the propeller by subjecting it to uneven stress. 

Synovial Joints 

A joint is formed when two bones come together or ‘articulate.’ The surface of a bone comprising one half of a joint is called an articulating surface and is aligned with the articulating surface of another bone. Joints in the spine and extremities are referred to as synovial joints. There are several types of synovial joints in the body such as the ball-and-socket joint (hip joint, shoulder joint), hinge joint (elbow), and the pivot joint (between C1 and C2 vertebrae), among others. Despite having different shapes and planes of movement, all synovial joints share some common characteristics. Synovial joints are encased in a fibrous joint capsule called the articular capsule. Within the articular capsule is viscous liquid called synovial fluid. Synovial fluid is the consistency of egg-whites and its main purpose is to lubricate the joint, reducing friction and stress between the two surfaces of the joint. Healthy levels of synovial fluid help keep our joints moving freely and prevent the formation of arthritis.  

Putting it all together 

The phenomenon of cavitation is observed in the human body. When a chiropractor delivers an adjustment, the therapeutic goal is to gap or widen the two joint surfaces, resulting in a decrease in pressure within the joint capsule.  The pressure decrease occurs within the synovial fluid, and bubbles are formed in response to this change in pressure. The bubbles rapidly collapse on themselves, releasing a shockwave of energy. The collapse of the bubbles and subsequent release of energy is believed to cause the audible pop or crack caused by the chiropractic adjustment. The noise made during a chiropractic adjustment is caused by the bursting of small bubbles within the synovial fluid of a joint in response to a rapid change in fluid pressure. Damage to the joint does not occur like it does to the propeller. The cavitation associated with the propeller takes place thousands of times per minute, whereas most patients get adjusted twice per week at the most. As such, regularly self adjusting your spine can lead to an array of negative outcomes. For more information, please reference my blog post, The Dangers of Self Adjusting.  Lastly, to determine how frequently you should get adjusted, review my blog post, How Often Should I Get Adjusted?


Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC.  Check out his bio here.

Patients often ask what the ideal treatment frequency is for getting adjusted. However, if you asked ten different chiropractors this question, you might get ten different answers. Within chiropractic, many different technique systems and schools of thought exist. Chiropractic treatments and treatment plans are not standardized within the profession and there is a high level of variability from doctor to doctor. With this in mind, the answer to how often you should get adjusted is it depends on your situation. Factors such as your age, health status, activity level, and diagnosis all factor into how often you need to be adjusted. For this post, I will address the question for someone who has mild or no symptoms and is looking to chiropractic for maintenance care and promoting overall health.  To begin, I’ll describe the typical treatment plan for a new patient at our clinic. 

Typical Treatment Plan

When a new patient comes to our clinic with a common complaint such as low back, neck, knee, shoulder, or elbow pain, we typically see them twice a week for 1-2 weeks, once a week for 3-4 weeks, and then reassess after 6-8 visits over 4-5 weeks. Adjustments will be performed at each visit. If the patient is markedly improved, we will push visits out 2-3 weeks and start seeing them on a less regular basis. Most patients feel substantial relief in just 2-3 visits, however, the underlying functional issues (posture, movement, breathing) causing the injury in the first place, take longer to reverse.  Once the pain is gone and the patient is passing all of the functional tests relating to the original injury, we place the patient on a maintenance care plan where they come in once a month. The purpose of the maintenance care visit is to make sure the patient has not re-injured themselves or sustained any new injuries. We will also review exercises they have been prescribed in the past and check their spines to see if an adjustment is needed. At our clinic we use a mixture of chiropractic adjustments, physical therapy exercises, nutrition and supplements, and soft tissue therapies such as instrument assisted technique, active release technique, dry needling, laser, and acupuncture. By combining multiple therapies, we decrease healing times, allowing for a shorter and less costly treatment plan.  

Maintenance Care 

How often should a patient get adjusted for maintenance care and promotion of overall health? As stated previously, one chiropractor’s answer may differ from another’s, and our answer is based on the combined clinical experience of nearly a decade from the two doctors at Mile High Spine and Sport, Dr. Ryan Dunn and Dr. Riley Kulm. For maintenance care and promotion of overall health, we suggest patients come in for a full spine assessment and adjustment once per month. Maintenance care visits also include a functional movement exam to see if any limitations in muscle strength, stability, and range of motion exist predisposing the patient to future injuries. The purpose of the full spine assessment and functional movement exam is to identify issues before they surface to help prevent pain or injury. Similar to how it is necessary to go to the dentist every 6 months for a cleaning and exam, you should go to the chiropractor once per month to have your spine assessed for restricted joints and muscle imbalances to help prevent issues down the road. For quality preventative maintenance care, chiropractic is one of your best, and most cost effective treatment plan options.

Can I get adjusted more than once a month? 

As a result of the numerous health benefits of getting adjusted, many of our patients decide to come in for adjustments more than once per month. Patients report improvements in breathing, energy, digestion, and sleep following their treatments. If you’d like to learn more about how the chiropractic adjustment can positively affect multiple areas of your health, please check out my post, Beyond Biomechanics: Exploring the Hormonal Benefits of the Chiropractic Adjustment.  

From a safety perspective, it is entirely fine to get adjusted on a regular basis. However, I would not suggest getting adjusted more than three times per week as you run the risk of causing hypermobility in the joints. Hypermobility means the joints are moving too much and lack the muscular stability for normal motion and can lead to a variety of orthopedic issues. In general, we rarely see maintenance care patients more than once per week. We encourage patients to come in more than once per month if they find the benefits of regularly getting adjusted enhances their lifestyle and well-being. 

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC.  Check out his bio here

One of the questions I frequently ask my patients is whether or not they self adjust their spines. Self adjusting refers to cracking or popping your own joints by twisting and rotating your spine. Many patients answer yes to this question, and often say it is something they are unconsciously doing. Most people find temporary symptomatic relief when they self adjust their own necks or low backs, but what are some of the long term orthopedic consequences of self adjusting your spine? 

What is self adjusting? 

Self adjusting of the spine is when an individual twists or rotates their spine to a sufficient degree some of the joints in the area pop or what chiropractors refer to as ‘cavitate’.  The ‘cavitation’ is essentially noise made by small bubbles popping within the synovial fluid of your joints and is completely safe. Individuals who self adjust may experience temporary relief with self adjusting because the mechanical stimulation of the joint popped momentarily blocks pain, tension, and tightness signals being sent to the brain.  Muscles around the joint will temporarily relax as well.  These all sound like positive outcomes, however, they are only temporary and typically last 5 to 10 minutes.  The long term orthopedic consequences of self adjusting last much longer and are more damaging to your spinal health.  

What is the problem with self adjusting?

The problem with self adjusting is when an individual adjusts their own spine, they lack the specificity to adjust the joints actually needing to be adjusted.  Chiropractors are specifically trained to feel or ‘motion palpate’ joints and assess their ability to move in the directions they are designed to. Once a chiropractor identifies a joint is not moving properly or ‘restricted’, the chiropractor applies a high velocity low amplitude (HVLA) thrust to the specific joint in the direction it is not moving. Learning the skills of motion palpation and adjusting take years to master and should only be performed by trained professionals. 

You are not adjusting the joints needing it the most when you self adjust. In fact, the joints popping are likely ones already moving too much! We call joints moving too much ‘hypermobile joints’ and these joints lack control of movement and muscular stability. Chiropractors identify ‘hypomobile joints’ or joints not moving enough, and adjust these joints to restore normal movement. The problem with adjusting the hypermobile joints with self adjustments is when you pop these joints you make them more hypermobile. Muscles surrounding a hypermobile joint have to work harder to stabilize the joint, and patterns of muscular pain, tension and tightness often arise. Additionally, adjusting hypermobile joints will make any adjacent hypomobile joints even more restricted. Over time, self adjusting will cause severe imbalances in the spine and decrease the spine’s ability to withstand the compressive forces of life and sport.  The result is more serious conditions such as disc herniation, nerve compression, and severe instability among other serious spinal pathologies. Repetitive self adjustments in the neck can lead to chronic tension type headaches and migraines. In summary, adjusting your own spine will make the hypermobile or unstable joints move even more, and it will cause the hypomobile or restricted joints to be even tighter.

What should I do instead? 

If there is an area of your spine feeling like it constantly needs to be adjusted, I would recommend consulting with a chiropractor trained in motion palpation and functional movement assessment. This individual can determine which areas of your spine need to be adjusted, and which areas need to be stabilized. In general, hypermobile joints are moving too much and need to be stabilized with a functional exercise focused on improving muscular control around the joint. Hypomobile joints need to be adjusted by a chiropractor in the specific direction of movement they are lacking. So remember, please think twice before the next time you are about to self adjust your neck or low back!

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC.  Check out his bio here.

Core Exercises – Do’s and Don’ts 

Many patients understand they need to strengthen their core in order to live functional and pain free lives. However, most do not know where to start. The popular opinion is exercises such as sit-ups, crunches, bicycle crunches, and Russian twists are the primary exercises to improve core strength. Unfortunately, these commonly performed exercises are not the best choice when looking to add strength and functionality to your core. 

The Problem with Sit-ups and Crunches

Sit-ups and crunches are perhaps the most regularly performed core exercises. These exercises are effective at increasing the tone of the six-pack or rectus abdominis muscle group.  While great for aesthetics, a tight and toned six-pack is not essential for a functional core and may even be detrimental. The issue with sit-ups and crunches are the forces placed on the spine during these exercises. Both involve repetitive flexion of the lumbar spine and most of modern society already gets too much ‘lumbar flexion.’  Lumbar flexion means rounding forward of the low back. The low back is in flexion when we are sitting in our car, at work, or on the toilet. The low back is flexed when we pick items up from the floor with improper form. The net result of so much lumbar flexion is placing undue stress on the discs, muscles, ligaments, and nerves of the low back. Sit-ups and crunches involve repetitive flexion of the low back and thus add fuel to the ‘flexion fire’ we get all throughout the day. 

The Problem with Rotational Core Exercises and Stretching 

The Russian twist and bicycle crunches are other commonly performed core exercises that are not ideal for the function of the core or spine. The Russian twist is performed by balancing on your pelvis with legs suspended in the air and knees bent while the upper body is held at roughly a 45 degree angle. Next, the athlete uses their hands or a medicine ball to twist back and forth in an attempt to work the abdominal obliques. Bicycle crunches are similar except the individual is on their back and the rotational crunch is combined with a straightening of the opposite leg and hip. The first problem with the Russian twist is it is extremely difficult to keep the spine in a neutral position and many individuals round their backs due to a lack of core strength and balance. Once again, many people are developing a detrimental position of lumbar flexion during this exercise.  

Another issue with the Russian twist and bicycle crunch is the forced rotational load it places on the spine. Functional movement specialists now agree the main purpose of the core is to resist forces placed against the spine rather than actually creating movement.  The lumbar spine only rotates 2-3 degrees per segment and thus requires more stability in the rotational (transverse) plane compared to mobility. I’ll explain exercises such as the Pallof Press and Cross Press in a future blog post, as both are excellent exercises for improving core stability in the rotational plane.

Basics of Effectively Performing a Core Exercise

Before we get into the specific exercises I teach my patients, I’ll explain why form is important for any core exercise you perform. First, the spine needs to be in a neutral position. A neutral spine may look different for each person, but the spine should be straight and may have a slight extension curvature. Extension is the opposite of a flexed and rounded position of the spine. The two variables that affect proper neutral spine positioning are your rib positioning and your pelvic posture. Many patients have what is called ‘flared ribs’. This means your ribs are protruding upwards and forwards and may even be visible. When the ribs are in this position the diaphragm muscle cannot function properly and core strength will suffer. Use an exhale breath to push your ribs downwards towards the floor to place them in a more ideal position. 

Secondly, you need to be aware of the position of your pelvis. Think about your pelvis as a fish bowl filled with water. If you have what we call an ‘anterior pelvic tilt’ your pelvis is dumped forward and water will be spilling out of the metaphorical fish bowl. Less commonly, patients may adopt a ‘posterior pelvic tilt’ where the water will be spilling backwards.  Both of these pelvic postures are detrimental to neutral spine positioning, as well as core strength. Always think about keeping your pelvis tucked under you so water cannot spill out of the fish bowl. By making sure your ribs and pelvis work together to maintain a neutral spine, you will safely perform core exercises.

Practice these Core Exercises:

3 Position Plank

The 3 position plank is a sequential exercise involving a front plank, right side plank, and left side plank. Each position is held for 10 seconds before switching positions.  Do your best to avoid dropping to the ground when switching positions. Switching positions every 10 seconds forces the brain and nervous system to react to a new stability pattern frequently and is thus more typical of how we move in life and sports. Additionally, by switching positions every 10 seconds we better guarantee perfectly executed reps. 

Dead Bug

The dead bug is another excellent option for building your core strength. Lay on your back with your hips, legs, and arms raised.  Simply holding this position is a difficult exercise in itself and is an effective way to exercise your core. Make the movement more dynamic by reaching one arm over your head and slowly lowering the opposite heel towards the ground.  Alternate sides, and perform in succession while making sure to keep your ribs down, low back glued to the ground, and head supported and slightly elevated to protect your neck. 

Bird Dog

The bird dog exercise teaches you to move your extremities while maintaining a neutral spine. The exercise does an excellent job of mimicking real athletic activities you will face in daily life. Get in a tabletop position with your hands stacked under your shoulders and your knees stacked under your hips. Your chin should be tucked and the back of your neck long with no creasing of the skin. Slowly move one of your arms forward while simultaneously extending the opposite leg backwards. The back leg only needs to be about 2 inches off of the ground to avoid hyper-extending your low back. Hold the completely extended position for a count of 2 and then return to neutral. Alternate sides while keeping a neutral spine and make sure to not let your pelvis rotate and shift excessively. Imagine there is a glass of water resting on the base of your low back and you do not want to let it spill! 

My goal with this blog post is to provide you with safe and effective exercises for improving the strength and function of your core. Enjoy!  

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC.  Check out his bio here.

The new year is a popular time for setting goals, health and lifestyle improvement, and new beginnings. We believe New Year’s resolutions offer an excellent opportunity to achieve your health and fitness objectives. Goal setting can be a tricky business, so we want to provide you with the tools you need to define, execute, and achieve your goals.  Make 2020 your best year ever and bring in the new decade with clear, focused intentions that push you towards a healthier and more fulfilling life. 

Establish Your Why

Before you start writing out your goals, you need to start by defining your ‘why’. Popularized by Simon Sinek’s excellent book, Start with Why, the idea of defining your why, or overall purpose in life, is the essential first step in goal setting.  What motivates you to succeed? Who do you want to help? What is your purpose in life? What are you truly passionate about?  Until you answer questions like these, the goals you set will lack a deeper meaning and you will be less likely to achieve them. Once you have established your why, you can align your goals with the vision for your life and how your goals directly relate to that why.

Write It Down 

In modern society seemingly all written documents are stored electronically. Everything from doctor’s chart notes, financial budgets, to the newest book on Kindle are digitized and meant to be read off of a screen. Instead of typing out your goals on a computer or cell phone, take the time to write them down on a piece of paper. There is value in writing your goals down on paper – a paper document is concrete, solid, and cannot be deleted with a stroke of your finger.  

Place this piece of paper somewhere you will see it everyday – on your desk at work, attached to the fridge, or take it a step further and tape a laminated copy of your goals on the inside wall of your shower! By seeing your goals in writing EVERYDAY you will be reminded of your goal, your why, and the ultimate purpose for achieving it. 

Write Out Action Steps for Each Goal

You can think of this as a to do list for each goal. Make one of these action steps something you can do TOMORROW. Examples of immediate action steps include purchasing a gym membership, cleaning up your resume, cleaning the junk food out of your fridge and cabinets, or calling a job or business lead. Make this first task simple to complete, so you will have zero excuses not to complete the task by the end of the next day. Subsequent action steps can be more complex and time intensive but should still have specific time frames for completion.  Giving yourself concrete deadlines will increase the likelihood you complete the action steps and ultimately achieve your goal.  

Create Goals that are: SMART

S= Specific: 

Your goal needs to be simple and specific. You should be able to answer the following questions: What do I want to accomplish with this goal?  Why do I want to accomplish this goal? What are the resources (people, monetary, time, etc.) needed to accomplish this goal? How will I know when I have completed this goal?  Once you have answered these questions you will have a clear vision of what you need to do to start on the path towards achieving your goals. 

M= Measurable:

Use specific facts, events, or metrics to clearly define your goal.  A clear and well-defined goal will better provide you with the blueprint you need to complete it. Instead of making a goal like, ‘I want to lose weight this year’, make a more specific goal such as:  ‘I want to lose 10 pounds by March and decrease my body fat percentage by 2-3%.’  

A= Attainable: 

While it’s okay to shoot for the stars, having practical goals you honestly have the resources to achieve are much more likely to be met. An unrealistic goal may demotivate you because you are asking too much of yourself. Use realistic timeframes. If your goal is going to take some time to complete, don’t give yourself a tight deadline which will ultimately end up stressing you out.  Conversely, don’t pick a goal that is overly easy to achieve. Find the sweet spot. You want a goal that will push you hard and motivate you, but not one that is so difficult it will cause stress and decreased confidence in yourself.

R= Relevant: 

Make sure your goal aligns with your life and career aspirations. Goals that do not push you towards your why feel empty and are less likely to be achieved.  By the time you’ve reached this step you should have already defined your why, and you can make sure your goals and your why are working for each other. 

T= Time Bound: 

Utilize a time frame and concrete deadlines.  As stated earlier, pick an action step to be completed by the end of the day tomorrow.  Pick another to be completed by the end of the week. Pick yet another more complex action step to be completed by the end of the month.  You can even pick goals that fall into different time frames. Write out a 1 month goal, a 6 month goal, a 1 year goal, a 5 year goal, and a 10 year goal. These goals can be interrelated or entirely separate.  Again, make sure these goals align with your why. Your 5 and 10 year goals should be intimately associated with your why because you will have had the most time to plan and execute these monumental goals.  

Ask for Help 

One of the best resources you have for completing your goals is your family and friends. Let them know what your goals are. Simply telling someone you have a certain goal is a powerful motivational tool. For added accountability, ask a family member or friend to check in with you periodically on the progress on your goal. If you have a career or skill acquisition oriented goal, find a mentor. Mentors can be a valuable asset in achieving your goals as they have likely had similar aspirations for themselves. Most mentors are more than willing to help an individual in their field as it gives them an opportunity to share the information they have worked so hard to learn. 

We hope these simple steps help you to define and conquer your goals in the New Year.  Make 2020 the best year of your life!

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC.  Check out his bio here.

Over the past weekend, Dr. Ryan and I had the pleasure of attending the annual Colorado Chiropractic Association (CCA) convention.  Speakers from all around the country discussed the benefits of receiving chiropractic, specifically the hormonal benefits of receiving regular chiropractic adjustments. Chiropractic adjustments have a beneficial effect on your endocrine (hormonal) system, resulting in far reaching health benefits you may not previously have associated with the chiropractic adjustment. 

The topics covered in this blog post are inspired by two lectures given at the 2019 Colorado Chiropractic Association (CCA) convention. The first is a lecture given by Dr. John Minardi, DC on 10/26/2019 and was titled ‘The Power of Chiropractic.’  The second is a lecture given by Dr. Monique Andrews, MS, DC, DNM on 10/25/2019 and was titled ‘A Potential Role for Chiropractic in the Neurobiology of Autism.’

How chiropractic adjustments affect your brain.

First, it’s important to explain that the chiropractic adjustment does not only affect the joints of the spine and extremities, but also the brain.  When a joint is adjusted, special nerve receptors embedded in the joint capsule called mechanoreceptors are activated and fire signals to the brain.  These signals are received and integrated by the brain, and the brain’s activity is noticeably changed in response to the sensory input from the adjustment.  Studies have shown increased glucose uptake (a marker for metabolic brain tissue activity) in the frontal lobe of the brain following an adjustment (Inima et al, 2017).  The frontal lobe of the brain is responsible for executive functions such as decision making, personality and emotional expression, problem solving, and also controls our ability to communicate and connect with others.  This may explain why chiropractic is an excellent, yet underutilized, adjunct therapy for children dealing with autism.  

When an adjustment is performed and mechanics in the spine improve, signals are sent to the brain conveying the new, corrected position and/ or motion of the vertebrae in the spine.  The brain accepts and integrates these signals, producing an output signal that will have far reaching effects in the body. When joints are aligned and moving properly in the spine, the brain produces signals to the body that promote health and decrease inflammation.  When joints are not aligned and are not moving properly, the brain produces signals that decrease health and increase inflammation.

How the brain functions after an adjustment.

Now that we know adjustments affect the brain, let’s talk about the positive changes that occur in the brain after an adjustment.  The hypothalamus is a small region located at the base of the brain near the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus is important for the regulation of body temperature and other homeostatic systems such as hunger, thirst, sleep, and circadian rhythm.  The most important role of the hypothalamus is the linkage of the neurologic system to the hormonal or ‘endocrine’ system via the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus receives sensory information from the body, and produces ‘neurohormones’ that activate or inhibit the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.  When we adjust the spine we improve the quality of sensory information that is sent to the hypothalamus. Here is where the magic happens. As I previously described, when you are adjusted, small nerve endings in the joints called mechanoreceptors are activated and send signals to the brain. These signals provide your brain with valuable information about where the body lies in space, the structure and integrity of your spinal column, and can even block or mask pain signals being sent to the brain by other sensory nerve endings!  Adjustments positively affect the brain and nervous system, improving the quality of sensory information sent to the hypothalamus. The end result is an improvement in the quality of hormonal release that is governed by the hypothalamus.

How the brain functions when things are off-balance.

Spinal malposition and/ or decreased joint range of motion is perceived as a stressor by the brain. The brain sits on top of the spine and thus relies on the spine for its structural stability.  Imagine you were trying to replace a light bulb, but did not have a ladder. You need to get the job done, so you decide to stack boxes on each other for you to climb until you can reach the light bulb.  After stacking the boxes, imagine that one of these boxes is rotated and has slid out of alignment compared to the other boxes. How confident do you feel about climbing the boxes to change the light bulb now?  I’m guessing you’d be a little more nervous and stressed standing at the top of the boxes. In this metaphor, the boxes are your spinal vertebrae and the person standing on top of the boxes is your brain! If the boxes are not in proper alignment, you will perceive standing on top of the boxes as danger and your stress hormones will dominate.  The body acts in the same way. When the brain does not sense healthy alignment of your spine, poor information is sent to the brain and stress hormones are released.   

When the brain is stressed, hormones such as cortisol and norepinephrine dominate.  These are the hormones released in the body’s ‘fight or flight’ response and are very useful in situations where the body needs to respond to a threat to survival.  These hormones increase heart rate and breathing, shunt blood to the heart and skeletal muscles and away from the digestive and reproductive organs, dilate the pupils, and cause metabolic changes that increase energy delivery to skeletal muscles.  The problem is that in modern society many individuals are in a chronic state of stress, and thus their ‘fight or flight’ system is always on. Hormones such as cortisol and norepinephrine are essential to life, however the constant presence of them in our bloodstream due to a stressed state is highly damaging.  Improper cortisol release timing is one of the main implications for weight gain and an inability to control cravings for sugar and highly processed foods.

Testosterone and Estrogen.

By decreasing the stress response to the brain, adjustments decrease the amount of cortisol released by the adrenal cortex via the pituitary gland.  Inappropriate cortisol release wreaks havoc on the endocrine system. Hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, dopamine, and serotonin are all measured at lower levels when cortisol is too high.  Testosterone is often singled out as important for male sex drive and energy, and while this is true, research also suggests that men with higher levels of testosterone show more compassion and are more loving to their partners.  When cortisol levels are high, testosterone levels plummet. Estrogen is highly important for bone formation in women and also for achieving and maintaining pregnancy. Cortisol kills off estrogen and progesterone, another important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. 

Dopamine and Serotonin.

Dopamine is our anticipation hormone.  It governs the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior.  Dopamine fuels the anticipation of a future reward. Dopamine is released when we are particularly excited for an upcoming event, i.e. seeing a loved one, going on a long anticipated vacation, etc.  Dopamine is also released when we are particularly anxious for an upcoming event. Proper cortisol and norepinephrine levels are necessary to maintain balance in the dopamine system. When cortisol and norepinephrine are high, due to stress on the brain, dopamine release goes awry and can cause depression, thrill seeking, unhappiness, decreased immune function, excessive worrying and bickering. 

Serotonin is the body’s satisfaction hormone.  It governs happiness, satisfaction, and fulfillment in life.  Serotonin is even boosted when in the presence of a particularly friendly or happy person.  Excessive cortisol decreases the amount of serotonin and can contribute to depression and chronic pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia. 

Excessive cortisol and norepinephrine throw the entire endocrine system out of whack.  Cortisol will decrease sex defining hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, dampen the effect of dopamine, our motivation-reward hormone, and serotonin, our happiness hormone.  The good news? Chiropractic adjustments and other forms of manual therapies decrease the amount of cortisol and epinephrine released by the adrenal cortex and medulla via the brain and thus increases the levels of all these highly necessary and beneficial hormones. As a result, many of my patients report improvements in breathing, energy, digestion, and sleep following a chiropractic adjustment.  Even if you are not in pain, regular chiropractic adjustments are highly beneficial for your health and should be received at least once monthly. By getting assessed at least once a month you are ensuring the health of the joints in your spine and extremities, and drastically decrease the risk of future injuries, and the need for costly orthopedic surgeries.

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC MS.  Check out his bio here. 

Citations: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:4345703. doi: 10.1155/2017/4345703. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

So you’ve recently scheduled your first chiropractic visit. Having never been to a chiropractor before, you aren’t sure what to expect. You’ve seen the YouTube videos, heard many stories, both good and bad, with everyone seemingly having a unique experience with a chiropractor.  In this post I’ll outline what you can expect on your first chiropractic appointment.  

The following article outlines a typical new patient exam at Mile High Spine & Sport.  Most evidence based chiropractic clinics will follow a similar plan for a new patient visit. 

History (10-15 minutes)

Once in the treatment room, the doctor will ask you a series of questions related to your area of complaint. Questions asked will include the location of pain and if there are any referred symptoms. Referred symptoms refer to pain, numbness, tingling, and/ or weakness that may be stemming from the main area of pain. The doctor will ask for a detailed description of how the pain came on, whether it happened in a single traumatic incident, or if it came on more gradually over time. The doctor will ask which activities specifically make the pain worse (i.e. sitting vs. standing, bending forward, turning, lifting an object off the floor, etc.) and also if there’s anything specific that makes the pain better (heat vs. ice, Advil, relieving postures or positions, etc.). The doctor will ask about your treatment history – any past injuries or surgeries, and whether any imaging (X-ray, MRI, CT) have been taken recently, so be prepared with this information if necessary. 

A doctor who treats the entire body and not just the site of pain will ask you a variety of other questions regarding your overall health and lifestyle choices. The doctor will ask about your diet because the foods we eat can affect the way the body experiences pain and recovers from injury. They will ask about any medications or supplements you are currently taking, as well as what you like to do for exercise because activity modifications may be necessary while you recover from your pain. The doctor will ask about your sleep quality as sleep is the most fundamental human function necessary to heal. Additional questions will be asked regarding any drug/ alcohol/ or tobacco use, as abuse of any of these can magnify the inflammatory pain response and slow healing. Interview over! Now the doctor has a clear picture of your current chief complaint, your past medical history, and knows the kind of lifestyle you are living. 

Exam (15-20 minutes)

Vladimir Janda, a renowned Czech physician, always taught that ‘Time spent in assessment, will save time in treatment.’  With this in mind, chiropractors like to perform detailed, in depth exams to determine what specifically is causing your pain or dysfunction. It’s important to assess the entire body and not just the site of pain, because dysfunctions elsewhere in the body may be contributing to the site of pain. For instance, a shoulder problem may be related to poor function of the hip on the opposite side of the body, a chronic knee issue may be stemming from poor ankle mobility on that side, or low back pain may be related to diminished mobility and/or stability in the hips. 

The doctor will start by taking your vitals, which includes blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and body temperature.  More specific exams such as an eye exam, cranial nerve exam, ear exam, lung exam, cardiac auscultation, abdominal exam, and nasal exam will performed on an as needed basis. 

Next, the doctor will perform a comprehensive neurologic exam.  They will test your deep tendon reflexes (think patellar knee jerk as a little kid), muscle testing, and sensation testing of your skin. These tests are meant to test the integrity of your nervous system. Other neurologic tests include single leg balance testing, your ability to stand with the eyes closed, the ability to sense vibration in your fingers and toes, and even your ability to distinguish smells such as coffee and cinnamon. The purpose of these tests are to screen for any pathology that is damaging your central nervous system and may include a disc herniation, spinal or brain tumor, or disease process. The vast majority of neurologic exams come up as normal, and the vast majority of positive findings in a neurologic exam are related to non-pathologic processes that can be corrected in the chiropractic office.  

The next portion of the exam is the orthopedic exam.  These tests help the doctor figure out exactly which tissues are injured, i.e. is it the meniscus, ACL, PCL, joint, or muscle? Orthopedic exams are meant to elicit pain and will most likely recreate your pain. Do not be worried about these tests damaging your tissues, they are only performed once and will help the doctor figure out the best course of treatment for you. 

The final portion of the exam will be the functional movement exam. The doctor will take you through a series of functional tests such as a SL squat, SL balance, lunge, push-up, active range of motion, passive range of motion, and muscle testing among many others. These tests are meant to recreate the demands of daily living and the basic requirements for healthy human movement.  When a dysfunction is found in the functional movement exam, the doctor is given valuable insight into which specific exercises will be beneficial for you. 

Will X-rays be taken as part of the exam?

At our clinic, we do not take X-rays on the majority of our patients.  Most presenting problems can be diagnosed and treated without the use of X-rays.  While radiation exposure during an X-ray is minimal, we still opt to only order X-rays or advanced imaging when absolutely necessary. Minor anomalies and asymmetries will be found on the majority of X-rays, but these issues rarely correlate to pain and can often confuse the patient into thinking they should have pain because of what the image shows

Review of findings (5 minutes) 

After completing the exam, the doctor will have a solid idea of what is driving the pain and the best course of treatment. The doctor will suggest which tissues are damaged and what other contributing factors are adding to the pain or dysfunction. Additionally, the doctor will explain the different treatments they want to use, including potential adverse side effects such as soreness or mild bruising for 1-2 days after treatment. 

Treatment (20-25 minutes) 

With the history, exam, and review of findings complete, the doctor can start the treatment.  Treatments will address the joints, nerves, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and any movement compensations you may have. The most commonly utilized treatments used at our clinic include: 

Active Release Technique (ART) – considered the gold standard in soft tissue therapies. 

Dynamic Neuromsucular Stabilization (DNS) – functional movement protocol based on principles of neuro developmental kinesiology. 

Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Manipulation (IASTM) – the use of metal tools to decrease tone of tight and tender muscles. 

Acupuncture – needling technique used for thousands of years to treat pain and organ dysfunction. Acupuncture is based on needling along specific ‘meridian’ pathways that have specific uses for healing in the body. 

Kinesiology taping – special type of tape that provides support to joints and muscles without causing disuse atrophy of the muscles as is the case with traditional orthopedic braces. 

Cupping – effective decompressive technique which lifts the skin away from the muscles allowing increased blood flow and lymphatic drainage at the site of treatment. 

Internal medicine blood testing – functional medicine blood testing to assess for specific nutrient deficiencies, digestive irregularities, and hormonal imbalances that can be an underlying cause of pain and chronic disease. 

A typical treatment plan at our clinic is 2x/ week for two weeks, 1x/ week for two to four weeks, once every other week for 2-4 weeks, then once a month for maintenance care if the chief complaint pain is resolved. Most patients feel significant relief after 6-8 visits. Additionally, most patients feel even stronger and more flexible compared to their first visit because of the exercises they’ve been given at our clinic.

Now you know what to expect in your first chiropractic visit, hope to see you soon!

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC MS.  Check out his bio here.

Many patients come to me with the goal of losing weight. They have seemingly tried everything from complex dieting, hiring personal trainers and life coaches, to intense calorie restriction and juice cleanses, yet nothing seems to work. Many methods work for a month or two and then the patient reverts back to their previous way of eating, often consuming more of the unhealthiest foods as a means of compensation for months of dieting. This cycle is repeated many times until the patient is discouraged and feels like lasting change will never happen. However, with proper education and dedication towards taking small steps in the right direction, lasting change is possible. In the following blog post, I’ll outline simple ways to take steps toward losing weight and keeping it off for years to come. 

What is metabolism?

Metabolism refers to the caloric cost of all biochemical processes in the body: digestion of food, maintenance of blood pressure, regulation of body temperature, protection from pathogenic diseases, production of ATP for energy, etc.  As metabolic rate increases, the amount of calories burned each day increases as well. Basal metabolic rate or BMR refers to the amount of calories burned while at rest. If you were to lie in bed all day your body would still be using calories to perform it’s essential needs, and the amount of calories you’d burn would be your BMR.  A main goal of weight loss is to increase the patient’s BMR (metabolism at rest), that way they are using more calories during the day, even when not exercising. One of the best ways to increase BMR is through resistance (weight training) exercise.

When we perform resistance exercise of appropriate intensity, we increase the amount of lean muscle mass in the body.  An increase in lean muscle mass is important because the metabolic rate is directly determined by the amount of lean muscle mass in the body.  As the percent of lean body mass increases, the metabolic rate also increases, resulting in more calories used throughout the day.  

An important point to remember is that lean muscle mass weighs more than fat.  This means that when you start performing resistance exercise, your body weight may initially increase. It is important to not get discouraged. Even though you are gaining weight, your metabolic rate is increasing and your percentage of lean muscle mass is increasing.  As metabolic rate continues to increase due to a higher percentage of lean body mass, you will eventually start to lean out and lose weight. I’ve seen too many patients get discouraged from an initial increase in weight and they end up missing out on the true benefits of resistance exercise.  

As an added bonus, one of the best ways to maintain the structure and function of your bones is through resistance exercise. Bones grow and remodel in response to external force.  You need to utilize barbells, dumbbells, kettlebells, and machine weight training to stimulate growth and repair in your bones. 

‘The Fat Burning Zone’: 

There is a common misconception that the best way to lose weight is through long duration cardio at a slow pace, such as taking long walks, slow jogging, or low level cycling on a stationary bike.  Most people have seen the charts on the treadmill or bike that highlight the ‘fat burning zone’ which supposedly gives the desired percentage of heart rate (HR) max that burns the most amount of fat.  The target zone is typically around 60% of the individual’s estimated heart rate max. While there is truth to the fact that our body’s burn more fat at lower intensities of exercise, the total amount of calories burned is much less when staying within the ‘fat burning zone’.  The amount of calories burned is more important than the percentage of fat being utilized for exercise. Higher intensity exercise such as sprints, repetitive jumping, resistance weight training, and plyometrics, burn more calories in less time and thus are more beneficial for weight loss.  

I prefer patients to perform short duration, high intensity bouts of exercise.  I’m not suggesting they completely give up taking long walks, or other forms of lower intensity exercise, but rather know the importance of getting their heart rate up and muscles firing in order to achieve a successful fat loss workout regimen.  Commonly known as high intensity interval training (HIIT), this training model uses short bouts of high intensity exercise, interspersed with brief periods of rest to reset cellular energy levels. The purpose of HIIT is to utilize and grow the body’s fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers (type II fibers).  These fibers are responsible for sprinting, jumping, and heavy lifting, and are highly active metabolically (meaning they burn lots of calories). HIIT can be performed with running, biking, or with body weight exercises.  

A popular form of HIIT training is a Tabata workout. The classic Tabata protocol is 20 seconds of max effort high intensity exercise followed by 10 seconds of rest.  Complete this cycle 8 times for a total workout time of 4 minutes. Exercises include squat jumps, burpees, lunges, push-ups, or any movement that can be performed repetitively and explosively.  If you are new to HIIT training, instead of jumping right into a Tabata, consider performing interval training starting at 30-45 seconds of a moderately fast pace, followed by 20 seconds of rest, for 6-8 cycles.

Decrease inflammation to lose fat

A growing body of research is linking inflammation and obesity.  Obesity leads to inflammation in the body, and inflammation makes weight loss more difficult.  Inflammation is the body’s response to injury or infection and is characterized by redness, swelling, heat, pain and loss of tissue function. Inflammation can be looked at as the body’s alarm system. While an important and essential response to injury or infection, the body can kick on the inflammatory process in the absence of injury or infection.  When our body’s alarm system is in a constant state of activation, damage to tissues can occur. The most likely culprits of increased inflammation are diet, poor or absent exercise patterns, physical and mental stress, lack of sleep, and lifestyle diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease.  

The common belief in human physiology for years was that after puberty, you are essentially stuck with the number of existing fat or ‘adipose’ cells in your body.  After puberty, the fat cells would only be able to shrink or grow, but the total number would stay the same your entire life. New research suggests this is not the case and that fat cells can die and even transform into other cell types such as muscle or neural tissue. This information should be very encouraging to an individual trying to lose weight. Even more interesting is the same research suggests that chronic low grade inflammation in the body makes fat cells more resistant to dying or transforming.  If the patient is seemingly doing everything, yet they are still not losing weight, look to inflammation as the culprit. Decrease inflammation in your diet by cutting out refined sugars and grains, corn, soy, pasteurized dairy, grain fed meat, and commonly used vegetable oils such as corn, peanut, safflower, and sunflower oil. Instead eat a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, grass fed meats, pasture raised eggs, sustainably caught wild fish, coconut oil, olive oil, grass fed butter, and a wide variety of spices (garlic, turmeric, cumin, cayenne, etc.).

Morning sunshine exposure

For each of my patients I recommend 10 minutes of sunshine first thing in the morning with as much skin exposure as possible. There are numerous health benefits to morning sunshine exposure, with the most important being the regulation of your circadian rhythm.  Think of your circadian rhythm as a giant clock, and at specific points in the day, certain hormones are released on a timed schedule. Cortisol, our ‘awake’ hormone, is released in the morning and is stimulated by UV light exposure from the sun on our eyes and skin. It’s important to get an adequate cortisol release in the morning to avoid elevated afternoon and night time cortisol levels. Cortisol is often wrongly referred to as our ‘stress’ hormone.  Cortisol release only causes stress when released in the afternoon and evening, when our body should naturally be shutting down and preparing for sleep. When cortisol levels are high in the afternoon, our body’s naturally crave refined sugars and unhealthy processed fats. You’ve probably noticed how you gravitate towards sweets and fast food when you are most stressed. You can avoid these cravings by making sure cortisol release in the morning is adequate.  

Leptin and ghrelin are two important hormones that also depend on an intact circadian rhythm to function properly. These hormones regulate appetite and need to be in balance if weight loss is going to be successful. Leptin is an appetite suppressor and ghrelin is an appetite stimulator. Leptin is released when our body has consumed enough energy from food and we no longer need to eat. Leptin is our satiety hormone, and tells our brain when we are full.  As you can imagine, if leptin release does not occur, we will not have the signal to stop eating and we will over consume calories and increase weight gain. Ghrelin does the opposite, stimulating appetite when our stomachs are empty. These two hormones work in alternate relationship to each other and both rely on a healthy Circadian rhythm to function. An excellent health initiative would be to visibly watch (no sunglasses/ no windows) the sunrise and sunset every day.  Balanced hormones, better sleep, improved energy, and better appetite regulation are some of the many benefits you’d get. 

In summary, three excellent ways to trigger weight loss are: 1) start performing a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program, 2) decrease inflammation through diet and exercise, and 3) regular sunshine exposure to optimize your circadian rhythm and hormonal balance. 

Post written by Dr. Riley Kulm, DC.  Check out his bio here.